- On 15 November 2010
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- emergencies, information, Pathologies
The care that each owner has a duty to give to your dog or cat is not exhausted with the administration of food and affection, but it also involves the protection and preservation of the health of the animal ’. So we must be able to make small crafts on our friends from an early age should be accustomed to accept willingly these small interventions. The firmness, the simplicity and sweetness are the secret to getting full cooperation; doing so will understand that soon these small gestures are made in their interest.
CORRECT ATTITUDES IN EVERY EMERGENCY SITUATION
- DON'T LOSE YOUR TEMPER and before you MOVE the ANIMAL to CARRY IT ’ OBSERVED IF BREATHES WELL, IF YOU ARE BLEEDING AND IF AND’ THIS HEARTBEAT;
- AN ANIMAL CAN TRAUMATIZED’ HAVE UNCONTROLLED REACTIONS FOR THE PAIN AND FEAR, THEN SLOWLY MOVE IT CLOSER BY TALKING WITH SWEETNESS;
- TRY TO KEEP THE SUBJECT FIRM AND DOES NOT PERMIT HIM TO MAKE SHARP MOVEMENTS AND VIOLENT, IF NECESSARY, FOLLOW THE FOLLOWING TIPS IMMOBILIZZATELO:
- DURING TRANSPORT the VET MOVE L ANIMAL AVOIDING STRESS ’ and PUT UNDER TENSION or TWISTING the SPINE. AND’ ALWAYS BETTER TO USE CRUDE STRETCHERS OR RIGID;
- NOT ADMINISTERED REMEDIES OR MEDICATIONS RECOMMENDED BY RELATIVES OR FRIENDS FOR “HEARD”;
- BEFORE USING ANY MEDICINE CONSIGLIATEVI BY PHONE WITH YOUR VETERINARIAN OR EMERGENCY;
- IN CASE OF ACCIDENT OR SUDDEN ILLNESS DOES NOT WASTE TIME TRYING TO IMPROBABLE HOME REMEDIES OR WAITING FOR THAT “RESOLVES BY ITSELF”, BUT HEAD
IMMEDIATELY TO THE VET.
- IN CASE of ILLNESS CAREFULLY OBSERVED the ’ ATTITUDE of ANIMAL ’ IN ORDER to BE ABLE to PROVIDE MORE INFORMATION’ PRECISE AS POSSIBLE TO THE VET.
- IF the ’ ANIMAL HAS HAD vomiting or DIARRHEA WHILE YOU GO to the VET
TAKE A SAMPLE WITH YOU: MIGHT BE USEFUL FOR DIAGNOSIS.
HOW TO DIAGNOSE A FRACTURE?
Limb fractures occur as a result of accidents or ill treatment. The dog or cat will fail to support the fractured limb ’ that appears inert and most often swollen and deformed. Fractures can be of two types: “closed” or “Open”, in the first case the skin and tissues above of fractured bone are intact ’, While the second are torn apart and the two bony stumps appear all external ’.
HOW TO BEHAVE IN FRONT OF OPEN FRACTURES?
You must move the two stumps but simply clean the wound with hydrogen peroxide or boiled water and fill the ’ limb with a sterile gauze or with a clean cloth without trying to subdue him and go immediately to the vet.
WHAT TO DO WHEN FACED WITH A FRACTURE?
In the presence of a fractured limb l ’ immediate aims to restrict the movements pending to arrive at the vet. L ’ fractured limb should be handled with extreme delicacy, without subjecting it to traction or twisting, or worse try to put in the correct location the bony stumps. The injured party should be protected with cotton, bandages or newspapers on which you can support the rigid as slats of wood or cardboard to be fixed with patch.
HOW TO TREAT A CUT WOUND?
Wounds to the legs cause bleeding pretty abundant since this region is richly buccal pumping. The first thing to do is stop the spilling of blood: as tourniquet you can use a handkerchief, a tie or a belt ranging knotted around the ’ of ’ animal limb above the wound. Va loose any 5 minutes and must not be left for more than an hour. If not you can use immediately to help veterinary ’ of pre-cutting fur around the wound and to boil thoroughly with hydrogen peroxide, then dry it and apply an antibiotic ointment before bendarla. Terminate these steps you can take away the strap. If the ’ bleeding stops and the wound is not large enough to change the bandage and renew the ’ application of the ointment every day, otherwise it is essential the veterinary intervention ’. Present on the trunk wounds are washed, disinfected with peroxide and filled with ice to stop the bleeding ’. L ’ veterinary intervention is indispensable in the case of extensive injuries requiring stitches.
WHAT TO DO IN CASE OF INJURY TO BITE?
From bite wounds are common in dogs and cats and later to colluttazioni. If the wound is about two inches long and shallow cut the hair on the edge of the lesion and, after disinfection with hydrogen peroxide, apply an antibiotic ointment. In these cases a seam is required not only, but it is not recommended because it allows the removal of any collections ’ serous, blood or pus. In the days following it must keep clean the part by washing with water and squeeze gently amuchina and the surrounding area to escape the liquids that can form and repeat the application of ’ ointment twice daily, administering, If there is an interest of surrounding tissues, antibiotics for General. If the wound is large and there is a disconnect in a large part of the underlying tissues must wash and disinfect the; If this is the case, limit the ’ bleeding by applying ice and cotton tablets and resorting immediately to Hemostatic ’ veterinary intervention.
WHAT TO DO IN CASE OF INSECT STING?
The bee stings bug ’ sometimes cause in dogs and cats a symptomatology that puts in serious alarm owners. L ’ animal begins suddenly at groan and rubbing the nose, that within a few minutes is swollen to such an extent as to render the animal ’ and reduce unrecognizable eyes two thin cracks. It's allergy attacks caused by toxic substances produced by spiders, bees and bumble bees. In rare cases the ’ edema may extend to the mouth, the larynx and pharynx causing respiratory problems sometimes with tragic consequences. If you manage to identify the precise location of the puncture to check that there is still the infix sting, that should remove with tweezers. On the site of the sting apply ice or cold water tablets. For a general therapy is based on administration of cortisone by means of a ’ subcutaneous injection. In the absence of improvements in therapy can be repeated after 8-10 hours. In most cases the symptoms disappear after 24 to the maximum 36 hours, in any case it is good to contact contact the veterinarian.
Poisoning and poisoning more often are treated by the veterinarian with symptomatic therapies (that is intended to combat symptoms) and General detoxification therapies with. This is because many times the substance responsible for poisoning ’ remains unknown and in other cases there is the antidote to a certain ’ toxic.
HOW TO ACT IN CASE OF INGESTION OF TOXIC SUBSTANCES?
In case of ingestion of poisonous substances that plants may appear the most varied alterations depending of ’ action of toxic ingredient. The most common symptoms are:
- absolute refusal of food, vomiting and diarrhoea (sometimes with blood); may also be present: bruising spread on the body (poisoning by rat poison anticoagulants) increased salivation, muscle tremors and seizures;
- in other cases the ’ animal may appear highly depressed or even unconscious, with dilated pupils and have a body temperature below normal. Do not use home remedies, as the administration of milk that in some cases may worsen the situation by encouraging the absorption of toxic ’, or to induce vomiting, in case of caustic ingestion may increase the amount of injuries ’. We must however go with urgency the vet.
HOW TO ACT IN CASE OF CONTACT WITH A TOXIC?
Toxic substances can, Despite not being swallowed, carry out their action by contact with the body of the animal ’ (cute, eyes, mouth). In these cases is essential to cleanse the affected area thoroughly with warm water and mild soap. If you are unable to remove the product (paints, tar) You must not use all ’ use of solvents, but you cut the hair smeared. The injury must be medicated with an antibiotic ointment, covered with gauze and subjected to a veterinary control.
HOW TO TREAT BURNS AND SCALDS?
In dogs and cats burns can be caused by domestic accidents: contact with water, coffee or hot oil and from excessive exposure to heat of drier after washing. Frequently in stray cats, the ’ burn is caused by the passage of animals on overheated parts of cars. The severity of Burns is assessed based on their depth and extension. In superficial Burns appears burned fur and skin is reddened and covered with blisters (bulges of skin ’ full of clear liquid) They followed the scabs. In these cases it is appropriate to apply immediately on lesion of ’ cold water or ice tablets for twenty minutes and then apply a ’ special ointment against Burns. Deep burns are characterized by the suffering of the deeper layers of skin that looks worn and blackish or whitish complexion due to tissue death. In these cases we must cleanse the wound using abundant cold water, splash with syringes, previously boiled and covering it with gauze sterile waiting of ’ veterinary care that must be sought urgently.
WHAT TO DO IF YOU HAVE SEIZURES?
Seizures in dogs and cats are caused by sudden and abrupt disturbance of cerebral activity and ’ occur with contractions and tremors affecting the whole body. Seizure during attacks, which can last from seconds to minutes, animals in addition to being unconscious feces and urine may lose. Crises can occur only once in life or repetition with a frequency varying from a few times a year to ’ many times in a day depending on causes that can be many: genetic disorders, metabolic, infectious or congenital. The appearance of a convulsive attack is always made dramatic for owners who remain very impressed. We must remain calm because in most cases the crisis ceases spontaneously. You must move away from animal ’ all objects that might hurt him and cover it with a blanket to avoid making noise in order not to aggravate his psychic state. Don't shake it, but we must speak softly softly. Convulsive attacks therapy always requires the intervention of veterinary ’, only in rare cases in which the crisis does not stop and the doctor cannot intervene promptly you must practise of sedating subcutaneously.
WHAT TO DO IN CASE OF HEAT STROKE?
In dogs and cats in heat strokes occur especially when they are left in closed environments and little ventilated as a parked car ’ during summer days or, regarding dogs, When they are subjected to excessive stress (ran behind vehicles or bicycles) on particularly hot days. Our pets cannot thwart the ’ rise in body temperature through sweat as does the ’ man, the ’ only means at their disposal is the ’ increase in respiratory rate, but in many cases it is not enough. When it is closed all ’ within the ’ car begins to have hot, squirms and feels suffocated, mucous membranes paonazze, eyes out by orbits, the dangling language, her breath labored increasingly overheats l ’ air in the cabin and ’ consumes the oxygen ’: death is asphyxia. We must intervene promptly with packs of ice-cold water on the head and bathe his whole body in cold water to try and bring the temperature to the normal values. You must bear the vet immediately and meanwhile inject subcutaneously of corticosteroids to counter cardiovascular collapse. A ’ very important recommendation in order to prevent these accidents is to never leave animals in the car during the warmer months, or at least to park all ’ shade and open Windows with not letting them long and not subjected to excessive stress in summer days.
WHAT TO DO IN CASE OF FROSTBITE?
Dogs and cats being equipped with SB, I'm pretty resistant to low temperatures. If, however, are wet damage can occur at ’ body; then the falls in lakes or ponds or longer stays in the snow can be dangerous for our friends. Body temperature drops dangerously and, if not returned to normal values within a short time can be compromised vital activities with risk of life. Some areas of the body can meet to freezing: the parties most affected are the ears, the queue, limbs and genital organs because they are less protected by hair and have a higher heat exchange with the external ’. The affected area is unresponsive and may appear dark complexion due to lack of blood circulation and tissue death. You should immediately intervene on one side by the ’ and the ’ other organism trying to restore the circulation in the area hit by freezing. You must carry the ’ animal in a warm environment, wrap it in a blanket and heating with bags of ’ hot water. If measuring rectal temperature were observed hypothermia (36-37 ° C) You must immerse the unfortunate friend in a tub with warm water and then dry it thoroughly with hairdryer. On the frozen must apply moist heat, such rags moistened with steam. We must act without rubbing gently so as not to create tissue damage and you must not apply any medication before the arrival of veterinary ’.
WHAT TO DO IN CASE OF DROWNING?
Cases of drowning in dogs and cats are not very frequent , as swim instinctively. It may happen that an animal falling in water is affected by trauma that make it impossible or swimming, yet, who could fail to emerge from the water ’ and ending with the sfinisca ’ drown, as it happens to those that fall in the pools or in the courses d ’ water with strong currents and steep embankments. The first thing to do is to remove the ’ water present in the lungs. If it is a cat or a dog of small size l ’ ideal is put upside down by tugging on the hindquarters compressing the chest with one hand for 2-3 seconds several times to facilitate the escape of water ’. In big dogs must be carried out the same massage, using both hands, While they are lying on one side with the head held lower body. The resumption of respiration is signalled by the appearance of breathing motions and coughing. If you were to check the breathing should be practicing pending the ’ veterinary intervention.
WHAT TO DO IF BITTEN BY VIPER?
The vipers are a serious danger to the dogs when they have the good fortune to wander the Woods monkey with the muzzle in the ravines and into the bushes where these reptiles are used to hide. In addition to the venomous Viper bite is very painful: l animal ’, If it dies on ’ instant, begins to groan and Yelp desperately. The severity of the bite depends on venue hit, where the circulation can be more or less abundant, the quantity of the poison inoculated, from the species to which the Viper, by season, from individual to ’ venom hypersensitivity and ’ age and the size of the dog. The affected area appears tumefatta, hot, sore and visi can identify two pinholes left by teeth reptile, surrounded by small bleeding. Once the seat of the bite should act promptly to prevent the poison spreads in the body by applying a ’ strap 5 inches above the very loosely wound to stop the blood circulation and releasing each 5 minutes approx. At this point you must proceed to remove the maximum amount of poison practicing, with caution so as not to affect the large blood vessels, a deep cross cutting 2-3 mm on the wound and crushing the fingers in order to bleed the wound. Following the injury should be washed and disinfected with abundant hydrogen peroxide. At this point , If you have, We must inject the serum antiofidico half around the wound and, After 10 minutes if there were no allergic reactions, l ’ other half intramuscularly. Now you can remove the snare and practicing a cortico-’ injection of steroids intramuscularly to fight the shock. The dog should be transported by the veterinarian as soon as possible.
WHAT TO DO IN CASE OF ELECTRIC SHOCK?
The curiosity and the tendency to chew everything they find, make that dogs and cats,
in particular if puppies, often run the risk of coming into contact with electric wires and plugs that unfortunately are not always adequately protected. In most cases the lesions are localized in the oral cavity and appear as burns, While the effects of the passage of electricity in the body ’ ’ occur with shock, decrease in blood pressure, alteration of ’ cardiac activity and loss of consciousness. If one of our friends has suffered an electric shock the situation is serious and we must act promptly. The severity of symptoms depends on the General ’ intensity and duration of shock: l ’ animal may show muscle contractions, convulsions, Cardiac fibrillation, pulmonary edema and unconsciousness. If the subject does not give any sign of life must practise the cardiac massage and breathing pending the ’ veterinary intervention.
WHAT TO DO IN CASE OF INGESTION OF FOREIGN BODIES?
The puppies and dog cat have a tendency to play with many different objects and
eating. The bodies pointed ( fish bones, chicken bones) You can stick on the palate, in the language or between the teeth, causing a dramatic symptoms: l ’ animal leads the Forelegs towards the snout as if trying to rip out anything in the mouth, has gagging and choking marks. With calm and caution a person grabs the head of the animal ’ left hand, While with the ’ index of right hand lowers the lower mandible. A ’ another person identified the foreign body, can try to extract it with tweezers. If you are unable to resolve the situation should be prontamentem all ’ veterinary aid. The foreign bodies in many cases progress along the digestive ’ and you can stop in the stomach or intestine in ’. In these cases the symptomatology develops more slowly but is less severe: uncontrollable vomiting, particularly after water intake, food refusal, absence of defecation and deep cleaning. You should definitely try to induce vomiting or administer purgatives in attempt to expel the foreign body as you may cause serious damage. Only the intervention of ’ veterinarian may address the situation.
What to DO when LOCALIZING a FOREIGN BODY in RESPIRATORY TRACT ’?
If a foreign body in pharynx fits or tracheal l ’ animal is shaken, pants, holding the head extended forward, plenty of saliva from the mouth loses and language may appear bluish: the situation is serious and emergency needs timely gire. First we gape of animal ’ with the left hand by grasping the top mandible while the right drops lower and, If you can find the ’ object and try to extract it. If this attempt fails to grasp the subject for the hind limbs and turned with his head down and vigorously shaking, If this does not suffice, by compressing them the chest with the hands. If it is a large dog and just can't lift it is possible sdraiarlo on one side and comprimergli thorax rhythmically to facilitate the expulsion of foreign body ’. On these occasions every minute is precious and we must act as quickly as possible and decided.
WHAT TO DO IN CASE OF PROLAPSE?
In puppies and kittens may cause rectal prolapse which can be congenital in nature or due to severe forms of diarrhoea. In the anal opening ’ you can see a stretch of the intestinal mucosa, of length varies depending on the severity of the lesion, that stretches all external ’. In these cases you must refrain from any intervention, but the part with a sterile gauze and turn immediately to the veterinarian.
WHAT TO DO IN CASE OF ACCIDENT?
When an animal is hit by a car ’ the first thing to do is to be transported by the veterinarian. In the meantime, without losing your temper it must be stated if the subject is still alive and the severity of injuries reported, controlling:
- l ’ breathing;
- the heartbeat;
- the ’ presence of internal bleeding.
If not present the vital functions you can attempt to revive the person practicing the breathing and heart massage in waiting of ’ ’ veterinary intervention.
HOW TO MOVE AN INJURED ANIMAL?
The correct transport of wounded is of great importance because of incorrect movements and reckless injury might create or aggravate existing ones. The best method is to use a stretcher that can be built using a carpet extemporaneously, a jacket or a golf. The patient should be lying with each caution, doing especially careful not to undergo abrupt movements of the spine, on rudimentary stretcher which must be lifted from all four sides simultaneously. Another excellent transportation can consist of any rigid support as an axis of wood or cardboard on which slide slowly the animal ’. If you don't have anything available and there is no help to carry the wounded in the arm. If it is of small size you should put an arm around the neck and the other ’ under the chest being careful not to crushing injuries (If the injury was on the chest should not compress this ’ last). Cats must be wrapped in a blanket or a towel to avoid divincolino. If it is a dog of large size l ’ ideal is cingerlo with arms, prior to the ’ height of shoulder blades and back around the thighs.
WHEN SHOULD YOU SUSPECT A’ INTERNAL BLEEDING?
As A result of accidents or falls hemorrhage can occur that affect internal organs or vessels in the thoracic or abdominal cavity, putting in danger the life of the animal ’.
The symptoms are represented by unconsciousness, weak pulse, heartbeat barely perceptible and mucous membranes of the eyes and mouth very pale. In these cases do not try to do anything but go immediately into the nearest emergency room.
HOW TO EVALUATE YOUR BREATH?
Following A severe trauma is important to evaluate the features of breath: presence or absence of respiratory movements, their frequency and type. You must observe the ribcage and check that you lower and lift with regularity and rhythm. A very shallow breath with chest movements and fast could indicate injuries that cause pain at the level of respiratory system, While an exaggerated abdominal muscle involvement during breathing acts may indicate a diaphragmatic hernia ’ or liquid spillage pulmonary level.
HOW TO PRACTICE BREATHING AND HEART MASSAGE?
Artificial respiration is a extreme attempt to save life at animal ’, then we need to act quickly but calmly and decision. The subject must be lying on its side with the head slightly extended neck. The ’ air should be entered in the nasal passages, with closed mouth, or in the oral cavity by holding the nostrils closed. You must blow with a certain force to 2-3 seconds looking at lifting the chest which later helped to collapse empty after removing the hands from the nasal cavity and mouth. You have to go by 7 to 10 breathing acts per minute until breathing resumes not spontaneously. When the heartbeat is not perceptible and the functionality of the heart has ceased to intervene immediately with the cardiac massage , that is the only intervention that ’ in extreme situations can save the life of the animal ’. With the person lying on the side you should put the Palm of your hand (or 2 if it is a great animal cuts, on the chest) just behind the elbow by a series of 60 compressions per minute. (see photo below).
Animals of small size, like cats and dogs dwarfs the compression can be done by grabbing the chest all monomanualmente ’ height of the heart, behind the elbows, with one hand and rhythmically squeezing. While it compresses you must count to 2 While only until 1 When you release. Often in very severe ’ trauma l cardiac arrest is accompanied by the respiratory cardiac massage then be performed with the breathing a breath about every 5 compressions for cardiac stimulation. It is always a serious emergency situations, then all these operations must be performed while you go to an urgent or emergency veterinary.